Date of Award


First Advisor

Christopher Coggins

Second Advisor

Amanda Landi

Third Advisor

Justin Jackson


The success of the women’s suffrage movement in the United Sates, Switzerland, and around the world often was determined by political, demographic, and social factors. The factors that unambiguously were correlated across all or most data sets to lower suffrage were a bicameral legislature, a lower FLPR, a multi-party system, a high sex ratio, a strong left showing in elections, and low rates of Catholicism. Crucially, all of these factors seem to come together with other cultural phenomena and local eccentricities to strongly favor Anglo-settler-colonial frontier states or Scandinavian countries, and conspired to doom enfranchisement in Switzerland.

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