Date of Submission

Spring 2021

Academic Program

Historical Studies

Project Advisor 1

Robert. J. Culp

Abstract/Artist's Statement

Modern China has been ethnically diverse throughout its history. Since 1949, 56 ethnic groups have been identified and recognized by the PRC central government. While the Han group has the largest population, the other 55 ethnic groups are relatively small, thus they are often referred to as “ethnic minorities” (Zhao et al., 2019, 320). An autonomous region is a first-level administrative division and the highest level of minority autonomous entity of China. Similar to provinces, an autonomous region has its own local government. Yet, unlike provinces, an autonomous region has more legislative rights. As of 2021, China has five autonomous regions for ethnic minorities, namely Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (GZAR), Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR), Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), Tibet (Xizang) Autonomous Region (TAR), and Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR) (Feng, 2016, 46). All of these autonomous regions were established before 1958. Those autonomous regions are all in frontier areas of China, but one notable frontier region became a province in the Qing Dynasty and modern China (PRC)-- Yunnan Province. Why during the 18-19th centuries, and even in modern China, Yunnan became a province in China’s regular administrative system, but other frontier regions did not.

Open Access Agreement

On-Campus only

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

This work is protected by a Creative Commons license. Any use not permitted under that license is prohibited.

Bard Off-campus Download

Bard College faculty, staff, and students can login from off-campus by clicking on the Off-campus Download button and entering their Bard username and password.