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Exposure to antibiotics found in aquatic environments can affect the development and stability of the microbiome in hosts in addition to increase the susceptibility to infection. There is little known about the effects of antibiotic pollution on tadpoles. To investigate how antibiotics affect the microbiome, we sequenced and characterized the microbiome of Xenopus laevistadpoles exposed to two concentrations of streptomycin- low (1 μg/mL) and high (10 μg/mL) for 7 days. We found that exposure to streptomycin causes dysbiosis in the microbiome of Xenopus laevis, reducing the diversity and structure of microbes found in tadpoles. In addition, we show that subclinical concentrations of streptomycin increased the abundance of class 1 integrons, an integrase-dependent system affiliated with the horizontal gene transfer of antibiotic resistant genes, in the tadpole microbiome.
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Ortega, Frank Julian, "The Effect of Streptomycin on the Microbiome of Xenopus laevis" (2019). Senior Projects Spring 2019. 72.