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Humans desire meaning in life, and achieve it by satiating their thymos. This is the part of the mind which desires pride, whereas the rational part of the soul desires reasoned thoughts, while the survival part of the soul desires food, water, and necessities. Furthermore, humans desire to show their lives have meaning in front of others, or seek recognition. They do this by risking their lives or livelihoods for the sake of satisfying their thymos.
The shah of Iran and Mustafa Kemal Ataturk tried to modernize their countries during the 19th Century. The shah was deposed in a revolution while Ataturk died as president and has left a lasting impression on Turkish life and government. The shah attempted to introduce reforms all at once, while Ataturk introduced them incrementally over time. The differences in their approaches determined how Iranians or Turks changed their identities, and their thymos, due to modernization, and how strongly they opposed it.
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Evans, Ethan Jacob Hornk, "Political Modernization in Atatürk’s Turkey and The Shah’s Iran and the Struggle For Meaning" (2016). Senior Projects Spring 2016. 256.