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Abstract: The goal of this research is to create a miniature conductive trilaminar gel-based actuator that exhibits bi-axial stretching. The actuator is based on a photopolymerized ionic polyacrylamide. The dependence of the device on salt concentration, voltage, size, areal expansion, and polymerization methods was studied. It was found that actuation of these trilaminar devices can be achieved on a much smaller scale (nearly 10 times smaller) than those developed by previous researchers.
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Otto, Hannah L., "High voltage actuation: Ionic hydrogel DEAs towards the development of new materials for DLW and microfluidics" (2015). Senior Projects Spring 2015. 384.